Distress in individuals facing predictive DNA testing for autosomal dominant late-onset disorders: comparing questionnaire results with in-depth interviews. Rotterdam/Leiden Genetics Workgroup.
DudokdeWit AC. Tibben A. Duivenvoorden HJ. Niermeijer MF. Passchier J. Trijsburg RW.
Department of Medical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. firstname.lastname@example.org
In 50% risk carriers for Huntington disease (n = 41), hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis Dutch-type (n = 9) familial adenomatous polyposis coli (n = 45) and hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (n = 24), pretest intrusion and avoidance (Impact of Event Scale), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), feelings of hopelessness (Beck Hopelessness Scale), and psychological complaints (Symptom Checklist) were assessed to determine their psychological well-being. The manner of discussing the genetic disorder, the test, and its implications during a semistructured interview (reflecting on one's emotions without getting carried away or dismissing or minimizing the subject) was judged in terms of coherence. Participants at risk for neurodegenerative disorders had higher anxiety and depression scores and more psychological complaints than did those at risk for cancer syndromes. Those reporting high intrusion/high avoidance had higher anxiety and depression scores and more psychological complaints than did those reporting low intrusion/low avoidance. However, the scoring of the interview showed that participants reporting high intrusion/high avoidance were more reflective about their emotions without getting carried away or dismissing the subject (e.g., more coherent) than those reporting low intrusion/low avoidance. This result suggests that participants with higher stress scores may be actively dealing with the emotional implications of the test, whereas those with low stress scores may (as yet) be unable to face these implications. It is important to identify the strategy of coping with threat to provide suitable counseling and necessary guidance. However, long-term follow-up is needed to learn the consequences of a denial coping strategy for those participating in a genetic testing program.
Omphalocele with absent radial ray (ORR): a case with diploid-triploid mixoploidy.
Lin HJ. Schaber B. Hashimoto CH. Barajas L. Beall MH. Lachman RS.
Department of Pediatrics, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California 90502, USA.
We observed omphalocele, absence of radii, hypoplasia of one humerus, a hemivertebra, and syndactyly in a stillborn male at 22 weeks of gestation. Craniofacial and genitourinary abnormalities were absent. DNA measurement by flow cytometry on a paraffin-embedded autopsy specimen showed 32% triploid cells. ORR (omphalocele-radial ray) complex appears to be a consistent combination, and diploid-triploid mixoploidy may be one of its causes.
Psychosocial and educational outcomes associated with home- and clinic-based pretest education and cystic fibrosis carrier testing among a population of at-risk relatives.
Cheuvront B. Sorensen JR. Callanan NP. Stearns SC. DeVellis BM.
Department of Health Behavior and Health Education, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599-7505, USA. email@example.com
We report on the psychosocial and knowledge outcomes of two different approaches to cystic fibrosis (CF) gene pretest education and carrier testing offered to 288 proactively recruited first-, second-, and third-degree relatives of people with CF. One group received pretest education and gene testing in a clinical setting from a certified genetic counselor. The other group received pretest education in their homes from a specially prepared pamphlet and were asked to send in a buccal cell sample for genotyping. No statistically significant differences between groups were noted on measures of CF knowledge, anxiety, and positive or negative affect, either while waiting for their test results or within a few weeks after they had learned their results. At both measurement points, participants who had received home education and testing reported that the testing was more convenient, but that they had received less information than they would have liked, and they were more likely to report being confused by the testing, although their level of CF knowledge was comparable to that of people who had been seen by a genetic counselor. In light of the increasing interest in home-based medical testing of all kinds, this study suggests that CF carrier testing in the home warrants further consideration as one possible approach to facilitating access to testing.
Second 46,XX male with MLS syndrome.
Stratton RF. Walter CA. Paulgar BR. Price ME. Moore CM.
Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio 78284-7802, USA.
We report on a second 46,XX male with microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome. In addition to microphthalmia and linear skin streaks, he had a secundum ASD, hypospadias with chordee, anal fistula, and agenesis of corpus callosum with colpocephaly. Biopsy of a linear streak showed smooth muscle hamartomata rather than the presumed dermal aplasia. Detailed ophthalmologic examination did not show retinal lacunae typical of Aicardi syndrome. DNA studies with distal Xp specific probes indicated a deletion in one X chromosome and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies with X- and Y-specific probes demonstrated the presence of a derivative X chromosome from an X;Y translocation.
VACTERL with hydrocephalus: family with X-linked VACTERL-H.
Lomas FE. Dahlstrom JE. Ford JH.
The John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra.
We describe in a five generation family four affected males with hydrocephalus (4 offspring/4 examined) due to aqueductal stenosis (3/3), symmetrical radial ray abnormalities (4/4), renal anomalies (2/3), anal atresia (3/4), hypoplastic penis/abnormal testes (2/3), and cardiac abnormalities (1/3). X-linked inheritance seems certain in this family. These abnormalities are characteristic of the rare X-linked VACTERL-H syndrome. In addition, one maternal female cousin had a severe tracheo-esophageal fistula. This may represent partial manifestation in a female carrier. Chromosomes were apparently normal (46XY) with no spontaneous or excess induced breakages in one of the affected offspring and his mother. In the absence of a genetic marker, diagnostic ultrasonography is the investigation of choice for early in utero detection of this syndrome. A confident ultrasonographic diagnosis was possible by 20 weeks in the 2 cases examined.
Sweat electrolyte and cystic fibrosis mutation analysis allows early diagnosis in Brazilian children with clinical signs compatible with cystic fibrosis.
Rabbi-Bortolini E. Bernardino AL. Lopes AL. Ferri AS. Passos-Bueno MR. Zatz M.
Departamento de Biologia, Centro de Estudos Gerais, Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Brazil.
A total of 540 individuals with clinical signs suggestive of cystic fibrosis (CF) was studied. The sweat chloride was measured and the DF508, G542X, R553X, and W1282X mutations of the CF gene were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). With this approach the diagnosis of CF was confirmed in 12 children, while 7 additional cases, who are heterozygous for the DF508 mutation, have had minor clinical signs. The frequency of the DF508 allele among the 540 individuals was approximately 3%. The mean age of children diagnosed with CF was 1.81 years, which is significantly earlier than in other studies of the Brazilian population. We also demonstrated that this approach has important clinical implications for earlier and adequate treatment, which was shown to be fundamental for increasing significantly the quality of life and life expectancy. This is particularly true in countries such as Brazil where most CF cases remain undiagnosed, mainly in families of low socio-economical status.
Complex familial rearrangement of chromosome 9p24.3 detected by FISH.
Repetto GM. Wagstaff J. Korf BR. Knoll JH.
Division of Genetics, Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
We describe a newborn male with minor facial anomalies, pyloric stenosis, and a chromosome rearrangement that involves deletion and addition of material at 9p24.3. Routine studies showed a 46, XY, add (9) (p24) karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with two different whole chromosome probes for chromosome 9 failed to identify whether the additional material was derived from that chromosome. FISH with single copy YAC probes from 9p24 (D9S1858, D9S1813 and D9S54) showed a more complex rearrangement involving a deletion at D9S1858 but not at D9S1813 or D9S54. Parental chromosome studies demonstrated an apparently identical 9p abnormality in the patient's mother. This report describes a familial chromosome rearrangement in an abnormal child and his normal mother and demonstrates the use and limitations of FISH in characterizing chromosomal abnormalities.
Heterogeneity in hereditary pancreatitis.
Dasouki MJ. Cogan J. Summar ML. Neblitt W 3rd. Foroud T. Koller D. Phillips JA 3rd.
Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is the most common form of chronic relapsing pancreatitis in childhood, and may account for approximately 25% of adult cases with chronic idiopathic pancreatitis. Recently, an arginine-histidine (R117H) mutation within the cationic trypsinogen gene was found in 5/5 families studied with HP. In this study we report on the results of linkage and direct mutational analysis for the common R117H mutation examined in 8 nonrelated families with hereditary pancreatitis. Two-point linkage analysis with the 7q35 marker D7S676, done initially in 4 families, yielded lod scores that were positive in 2, negative in one, and weakly positive in one. Direct mutational analysis of exon 3 of the cationic trypsinogen gene in 6 families showed that all symptomatic individuals tested were heterozygous for the R117H mutation. Also, several asymptomatic but at-risk relatives were found to be heterozygous for this mutation. Affected individuals in the remaining 2 families did not have the mutation. Radiation hybrid mapping using the Genebridge 4 panel assigned the trypsinogen gene to chromosome region 7q35, 2.9 cR distal to ETS WI-9353 and 3.8 cR proximal the dinucleotide repeat marker D7S676. The negative linkage and absence of the trypsinogen mutation in 2/8 families suggest locus heterogeneity in HP. Analysis of the R117H mutation is useful in identifying presymptomatic "at-risk" relatives and in genetic counseling. Also, it can be useful in identifying children and adults with isolated chronic idiopathic pancreatitis.
Retinoblastoma and Hirschsprung disease in a patient with interstitial deletion of chromosome 13.
Weigel BJ. Pierpont ME. Young TL. Mutchler SB. Neglia JP.
Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis 55455, USA.
Retinoblastoma is a rare pediatric malignancy (1/20,000) while Hirschsprung disease is a relatively common pediatric disorder (1/5,000). We describe a boy with bilateral retinoblastoma, Hirschsprung disease, multiple minor anomalies, and an interstitial deletion 13q (q13 --> q22). This child and a similar previously reported girl with retinoblastoma and Hirschsprung disease may represent a previously unrecognized contiguous gene syndrome.
Autoimmune enteropathy in Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia.
Kaitila I. Savilahti E. Ormala T.
Department of Clinical Genetics, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland. email@example.com
The clinical phenotype of Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia (SID) is characterized by growth retardation, renal failure, recurrent infections, cerebral infarcts, and skin pigmentation beginning in childhood. We report here on a 4-year-old male child who had all characteristic symptoms of SID, and, in addition, vomiting and prolonged diarrhea. The study results suggest that malabsorption, demonstrated as increased serum immunoglobulin A anti-gliadin antibody, steatorrhea and partial villous atrophy of the jejunal small bowel, is a previously unrecognized feature of SID.
Anomalies in Down syndrome individuals in a large population-based registry.
Torfs CP. Christianson RE.
California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, Emeryville 94608, USA.
In a population of close to 2.5 million infants born from 1983 to 1993 registered in the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, we compared the prevalence of structural birth defects among 2,894 infants with Down syndrome (DS) with that of infants without DS. Among 61 defects uniformly ascertained in affected and unaffected infants, 45 were significantly more common in DS, with atrioventricular canal (risk ratio = 1,009), duodenal atresia (risk ratio = 265), and annular pancreas (risk ratio = 430) being the most common. Most defects of blastogenesis and most midline defects were either nonsignificantly associated or not observed in infants with DS. Theories on the pathogenesis of defects in trisomies must account for the lack of and for the presence of specific defects.