Improved nutrition after the detection and treatment of occult gastroparesis in nondiabetic dialysis patients.
Ross EA. Koo LC.
Division of Nephrology, Hypertension and Transplantation, University of Florida, Gainesville 32610-0224, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Malnutrition in dialysis patients is of multifactorial etiology and is associated with greatly increased morbidity and mortality. A low serum albumin level is one of the most powerful predictors of death and may persist despite optimization of the dialysis prescription. We retrospectively reviewed our experience in improving nutrition in nondiabetic patients with unexplained hypoalbuminemia. Using radionuclide solid-phase gastric emptying scans, we identified 6 patients who had occult gastroparesis. These patients (one on hemodialysis and five on peritoneal dialysis) were then treated with prokinetic medications (erythromycin elixir or metoclopramide) selected on the basis of their effectiveness in improving the scanning results after being given intravenously. Gastric emptying half-times improved from a median of 122 minutes (range, 95 to >300 minutes; normal, < or = 90 minutes) to 12 +/- 2 minutes (mean +/- SEM). The serum albumin increased from 3.3 +/- 0.04 g/dL to 3.7 +/- 0.08 g/dL at 3 months, with every patient's value higher than 3.5 g/dL. This improvement was statistically significant (P = 0.008) over the 5-month period of observation, which encompassed the 2 months before and 3 months after treatment. There was a linear improvement (P = 0.008) that showed a quadratic trend (P = 0.078) for a plateau at the final sampling point. The serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and hematocrit levels remained unchanged (P > 0.1). We conclude that gastric emptying scans are valuable in identifying occult gastroparesis in high-risk patients and can guide the selection of prokinetic therapy, which may significantly increase serum albumin levels.
High prevalence of hepatitis G virus infection compared with hepatitis C virus infection in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis.
Sheng L. Widyastuti A. Kosala H. Donck J. Vanrenterghem Y. Setijoso E. Soumillion A. Verslype C. Schelstraete R. Emonds MP. Hess G. Yap SH.
Department of Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven, Belgium.
A recently discovered non-A-E hepatitis virus has been designated as hepatitis G virus (HGV) and identified as a new member of the Flaviviridae family. Infection by this virus is thought to be associated with blood-borne hepatitis and usually in the presence of hepatitis C or hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. In this study, the presence of HGV-RNA in serum or plasma and the prevalence of antibodies against an HGV envelope protein (E2) were investigated in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis using a sensitive reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. HGV-RNA was detected in 19 of 112 patients investigated (17%) and anti-E2 antibodies were detected in 15 of 106 patients studied (14.2%). With the exception of two patients, the appearance of anti-E2 is associated with the clearance of serum HGV-RNA. The total prevalence of current (HGV-RNA positivity) and/or past (anti-E2 positivity) HGV infection in this patient population is thus 28.6% (32 of 112 patients were positive for serum HGV-RNA and/or anti-E2 antibodies). In apparently healthy blood donors, serum HGV-RNA was detected in four of 358 individuals (1.12%) and anti-E2 was not detected in 50 individuals investigated. From the 19 patients with serum HGV-RNA positivity, nine were coinfected with other hepatitis viruses (seven with HBV; one with HBV, hepatitis C virus [HCV], and hepatitis D virus; and one with HBV and cytomegalovirus). Thirteen of 15 patients with anti-E2 positivity (10 were positive for only anti-E2 and three were also positive for anti-HBc) had no detectable HGV-RNA. In two patients, both HGV-RNA and anti-E2 antibodies were concomitantly present (both patients were coinfected with HCV or HBV). Of the HGV-infected patients, only three who were coinfected with HBV showed elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels. The serum HCV-RNA and/or anti-HCV were detected in five (4.5%) of 112 patients. From these findings, we conclude that there is a high prevalence of HGV infection (28.6%) compared with HCV (4.5%) in patients undergoing hemodialysis in our hospital. However, approximately 50% of patients had spontaneously lost the viremia and developed anti-HGV-E2 antibodies. We confirm that HGV infection alone is not associated with elevated serum transaminases, and the appearance of anti-HGV-E2 is usually accompanied with clearance of serum HGV-RNA. In contrast to the results of our previous study, the majority of patients infected with HGV are not coinfected with HCV, indicating that HGV is capable of independent transmission. It is likely that there is a preferential HGV acquisition in the hemodialysis unit. The clinical significance of long-term infection with HGV remains to be established.
Prevalence of hepatitis C and G virus infection in chronic hemodialysis patients.
de Medina M. Ashby M. Schluter V. Hill M. Leclerq B. Pennell JP. Jeffers LJ. Reddy KR. Schiff ER. Hess G. Perez GO.
Division of Hepatology, University of Miami School of Medicine and Veterans Administration Medical Center, FL 33125, USA. mednet.med.miami.edu.
An RNA virus designated hepatitis G virus (HGV) has been recently identified in patients with acute and chronic liver disease. HGV is transfusion transmissible, it has global distribution, and it is present in the volunteer blood donor population in the United States. One hundred sixty patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis at the University of Miami-affiliated unit were evaluated. There were 99 men and 61 women ranging in age from 22 to 80 years. Sixty percent had a history of blood transfusion, 6% had a history of drug abuse, and 9% were infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. HGV-RNA was detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with amplification of two independent regions (5'-nontranslated region and NS5a coding region). Detection of digoxigenin-labeled amplification products with specific capture probes to the coding and noncoding regions was performed with the Enzymun-test DNA on an ES-300 Immunoassay System (Boehringer-Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany). Hepatitis C antibodies were measured with anti-hepatitis C virus enzyme-linked immunosorbent third-generation assays and hepatitis C virus RNA by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. There were 32 (20%) patients with detectable HGV RNA with both primer pairs. Because of possible mutations, the HGV virus may be detectable only with one primer pair. We considered the latter as indeterminate: 12 had detectable levels to the NS5a region only, seven to the 5'-nontranslated region, and six had borderline results. Detectable and indeterminate samples were confirmed by repeat measurements in a new blood sample. Seven of 24 (29%) patients with detectable hepatitis C virus RNA had coexisting HGV with one or both HGV primer pairs (four with both and three with one). Five patients were hepatitis B surface antigen positive and HGV negative. We conclude that HGV infection is prevalent in our dialysis patients. The clinical significance of HGV infection remains to be established.
Prolonged anuria complicating primary sclerosing cholangitis: successful outcome following orthotopic liver transplantation.
Griffin MD. Grande JP. Wiesner RH. Velosa JA.
Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
A 49-year-old man with progressive obstructive jaundice secondary to primary sclerosing cholangitis developed acute, anuric renal failure requiring prolonged hemodialysis. Renal biopsy showed evidence of tubular epithelial toxicity, pigmented casts, interstitial fibrosis, and ischemic glomerular changes. After orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), there was an immediate return of urine output. The introduction of tacrolimus (FK506) was delayed for 3 weeks after transplantation, during which time a gradual improvement in renal function occurred. Renal function remained stable 1 year later at a level of moderate impairment with good hepatic function.
Peritoneal dialysis in nondiabetic patients older than 70 years: comparison with patients aged 40 to 60 years.
De Vecchi AF. Maccario M. Braga M. Scalamogna A. Castelnovo C. Ponticelli C.
Division of Nephrology and Dialysis, IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore, Milan, Italy.
In all industrial countries, the number of elderly patients who need dialysis has increased in recent years. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed two different age groups of nondiabetic peritoneal dialysis patients treated at the same unit by the same team of physicians and nurses with the same protocols. However, our purpose was to study possible differences in technique and survival rates, causes of dropout, complications, hospitalization rate, and everyday needs between the two groups. The results of 63 consecutive nondiabetic patients older than 70 years treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) were compared with those of 86 nondiabetic patients aged 40 to 60 years treated during the same period. Patient survival was significantly worse in the elderly patients, but the observed to expected survival ratio with respect to age was similar. Technique survival was comparable in the two groups. Total hospitalization was 5,501 days (32 d/yr) in the elderly patients and 4,511 days (18 d/yr; P < 0.05) in the younger group. The peritonitis rate was 0.52 episodes/patient-year in the elderly patients and 0.37 episodes/patient-year in the younger patients (P < 0.002). The exit site infection rate was similar in the two groups (0.30 episodes/yr v0.29 episodes/yr). Other complications related to CAPD did not differ between the elderly and younger patients. Rehabilitation and biochemical data after 1 year of CAPD were similar in the two groups of patients. After 1 year of treatment, 12% of the younger patients and 43% of the elderly patients (P < 0.005) needed a partner for dialysis. Twenty-nine of 39 (74%) of the elderly patients and 30 of 53 (57%) of the younger patients considered their lifestyle acceptable after 1 year of dialysis. Thirty-four of 39 (87%) of the elderly patients and 32 of 53 (60%) of the younger patients (P < 0.02) rated their physical and social state after rehabilitation as better or comparable to that they had before terminal uremia.
Thrombotic microangiopathy associated with cryoglobulinemic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and hepatitis C.
Herzenberg AM. Telford JJ. De Luca LG. Holden JK. Magil AB.
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, St. Paul's Hospital and the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
Cryoglobulinemic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) and increased incidence of vascular thromboses are complications of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This report describes the clinical, laboratory, and renal biopsy findings in two HCV-positive patients with cryoglobulinemic MPGN and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Testing for circulating antiphospholipid antibodies, which are detected in a significant proportion of patients with HCV, was negative in the one case in which it was done. This article discusses the possible cause of the TMA in these two cases.
Successful treatment of bleeding from colonic angiodysplasias with tranexamic acid in a hemodialysis patient.
Vujkovac B. Lavre J. Sabovic M.
Department of Nephrology and Dialysis, Slovenj Gradec General Hospital, Slovenia.
Colonic angiodysplasias are a common source of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It is well known that bleeding from angiodysplasias can be a difficult therapeutic problem. This report describes a hemodialysis patient who suffered acute (massive) and chronic gastrointestinal bleeding from colonic angiodysplasias. Because endoscopic ablation could not be performed and resection of the colon was refused, pharmacological treatment with the antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid was attempted. A successful management of both the acute and chronic bleeding was achieved. No complications in terms of arterial or venous thrombosis were observed.
Acquisition of hepatitis C virus in hemodialysis patients: a prospective study by branched DNA signal amplification assay.
Fabrizi F. Martin P. Dixit V. Brezina M. Cole MJ. Gerosa S. Mousa M. Gitnick G.
Department of Medicine, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095-7019, USA.
Serological data indicate that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is very common among chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Circumstantial evidence suggests that hemodialysis per se is an important risk factor for this infection. We used a novel methodology, the branched DNA (bDNA) signal amplification assay, which is capable of detecting HCV RNA and of quantifying HCV viral load in serum, to prospectively determine the rate of acquisition of HCV infection in 274 anti-HCV-negative patients undergoing HD treatment in four hemodialysis units. Moreover, we used bDNA testing to analyze the dynamics of HCV acquisition among HD patients, a high-risk group for HCV infection with immune compromise conferred from uremia. Two patients were identified with de novo acquisition during 1 year of prospective bDNA testing. Thus, the HCV incidence was 0.73% per year. De novo acquisition of HCV infection was observed in the absence of identifiable parenteral risk factors. Both patients showed the same pattern of HCV acquisition: they underwent an initial viremic phase that was associated with an increase in alanine transaminase (ALT) activity and that preceded the anti-HCV seroconversion. This was followed by HCV RNA clearance and normalization of ALT activity. Anti-HCV positivity occurred 1 and 2 months after the ALT increase in the first and second patients, respectively. Although HCV incidence was low (0.73%), further research is warranted to set the optimal policy for eliminating the risk of nosocomial transmission of HCV in the HD setting. Our findings show the pattern of HCV acquisition in chronic HD patients and emphasize the need to screen the HD population for ALT measurement combined with anti-HCV testing for detecting hepatitis C. HCV RNA testing can identify HCV before seroconversion in individuals with deranged liver function tests. The acquisition of HCV in HD patients without identifiable risk is confirmed.
Serologic and virologic profiles of hepatitis C infection in renal transplant candidates. New England Organ Bank Hepatitis C Study Group.
Natov SN. Lau JY. Bouthot BA. Murthy BV. Ruthazer R. Schmid CH. Levey AS. Pereira BJ.
Division of Nephrology, New England Medical Center, Boston, MA 02111, USA.
The development of policies to prevent nosocomial transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in hemodialysis units is critically dependent on the understanding of the relationship between tests for anti-HCV, HCV RNA, and HCV genotype and the patients' clinical characteristics. We tested sera from all patients on the renal transplant waiting list at the New England Organ Bank between November 1986 and June 1990 for anti-HCV by a third-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA3) and a third-generation recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA3). All ELISA3-positive sera were tested for HCV RNA by reverse transcriptase "nested" polymerase chain reaction, and the genotype was characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Sera were available in 1,544 of 3,243 (48%) patients on the waiting list, of whom 287 (19%) tested positive for anti-HCV by ELISA3. Two hundred eighty-six randomly selected, anti-HCV-negative patients served as controls. Compared with anti-HCV-negative controls, anti-HCV-positive patients had a longer duration since initiation of renal replacement therapy, higher number of previous kidney transplants and blood transfusions, higher proportion of patients with anti-HBc, history of liver disease, history of non-A, non-B hepatitis, and elevated serum alanine aminotransferase, and lower serum albumin concentrations. Of the 287 anti-HCV-positive sera, 261 (91%) were reactive by RIBA3, 21 (7%) were indeterminate, and five (2%) were nonreactive. HCV RNA was detected in 224 of 275 (81%) ELISA3-positive patients, in whom additional sera were available. There were no significant differences in clinical or laboratory characteristics between ELISA3-positive patients with and without HCV RNA. Genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, and 4 were present in 53%, 23%, 8%, 10%, 4%, and 2% of patients, respectively. Infection with one, two, or three different HCV genotypes was present in 92%, 7%, and 1%, respectively. There was no significant association between the type or number of HCV genotypes and RIBA3 reactivity. There were no major differences in clinical or laboratory characteristics between genotypes or between single and mixed infection. In summary, this study provides detailed information regarding the relationship between tests for anti-HCV, HCV RNA, and HCV genotypes and the clinical and laboratory characteristics of a large, well-characterized cohort of patients referred for renal transplant.
Registry of pregnancy in dialysis patients.
Okundaye I. Abrinko P. Hou S.
Department of Medicine, Section of Nephrology, Rush Presbyterian-St Luke's Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.
A total of 2,299 dialysis units listed by the Health Care Finance Administration were surveyed to determine the frequency and course of pregnancies in dialysis patients. The responses included 930 units caring for 6,230 females aged 14 to 44 years (1,699 receiving peritoneal dialysis and 4,531 receiving hemodialysis). Two percent of the female patients of childbearing age became pregnant over a 4-year period (2.4% of the hemodialysis patients and 1.1% of the peritoneal dialysis patients). The infant survival rate was 40.2% in the 184 pregnancies in women who conceived after starting dialysis and 73.6% in the 57 pregnancies in women who started dialysis after conception. In the subset of women in whom dialysis modality was known, infant survival was not significantly different between the hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients (39.5% v 37%). There was a trend toward better infant survival in women who received dialysis > or = 20 hours per week and a weak correlation between number of hours of dialysis and gestational age (P = 0.05). Maternal complications included two maternal deaths and five intensive care unit admissions for hypertensive crisis. Seventy-nine percent of women had some degree of hypertension, and 32 had blood pressure higher than 170/110 mm Hg. Only 5.9% of women had a hematocrit greater than 30% throughout pregnancy. Twenty-six percent of women treated with erythropoietin (EPO) and 77% of women not receiving EPO required transfusions. Eleven infants had congenital anomalies and 11 had long-term medical problems. Eighty-four percent of infants born to women who conceived after starting dialysis were premature. The likelihood of a surviving infant resulting from pregnancy in dialysis patients is higher than previously observed. There is no preferred dialysis modality. There is a suggestion that increased dialysis time may improve outcome. Prematurity remains a major cause of morbidity and likely contributes to a high frequency of long-term medical problems in surviving infants.