Topoisomerase I and II consensus sequences in a 17-kb deletion junction of the COL4A5 and COL4A6 genes and immunohistochemical analysis of esophageal leiomyomatosis associated with Alport syndrome.
Ueki Y. Naito I. Oohashi T. Sugimoto M. Seki T. Yoshioka H. Sado Y. Sato H. Sawai T. Sasaki F. Matsuoka M. Fukuda S. Ninomiya Y.
Department of Molecular Biology, Okayama University Medical School, Shigei Medical Research Institute, Okayama, Japan.
Diffuse esophageal leiomyomatosis (DL), a benign smooth-muscle-cell tumor, is characterized by abnormal cell proliferation. DL is sometimes associated with X-linked Alport syndrome (AS), an inherited nephropathy caused by COL4A5 gene mutations. COL4A5 is tightly linked, in a head-to-head fashion, to the functionally related and coordinately regulated COL4A6 gene. No X-linked AS cases are due to COL4A6 mutations, but all DL/AS cases are always associated with deletions spanning the 5' regions of the COL4A5/COL4A6 cluster. Unlike the COL4A5 breakpoints, those of COL4A6 are clustered within intron 2 of the gene. We identified a DL/AS deletion and the first characterization of the breakpoint sequences. We show that a deletion eliminates the first coding exon of COL4A5 and the first two coding exons of COL4A6. The breakpoints share the same sequence, which, in turn, is closely homologous to the consensus sequences of topoisomerases I and II. Additional DNA evidence suggested that the male patient is a somatic mosaic for the mutation. Immunohistochemical analysis using alpha-chain-specific monoclonal antibodies supported this conclusion, since it revealed the absence of the alpha5(IV) and alpha6(IV) collagen chains in most but not all of the basement membranes of the smooth-muscle-cell tumor. We also documented a similar segmental staining pattern in the glomerular basement membranes of the patient's kidney. This study is particularly relevant to the understanding of DL pathogenesis and its etiology.
Genome search in celiac disease.
Greco L. Corazza G. Babron MC. Clot F. Fulchignoni-Lataud MC. Percopo S. Zavattari P. Bouguerra F. Dib C. Tosi R. Troncone R. Ventura A. Mantavoni W. Magazzu G. Gatti R. Lazzari R. Giunta A. Perri F. Iacono G. Cardi E. de Virgiliis S. Cataldo F. De Angeli
Department of Pediatrics, University of Federico II, Naples, Italy.
Celiac disease (CD), a malabsorption disorder of the small intestine, results from ingestion of gluten. The HLA risk factors involved in CD are well known but do not explain the entire genetic susceptibility. To determine the localization of other genetic risk factors, a systematic screening of the genome has been undertaken. The typing information of 281 markers on 110 affected sib pairs and their parents was used to test linkage. Systematic linkage analysis was first performed on 39 pairs in which both sibs had a symptomatic form of CD. Replication of the regions of interest was then carried out on 71 pairs in which one sib had a symptomatic form and the other a silent form of CD. In addition to the HLA loci, our study suggests that a risk factor in 5qter is involved in both forms of CD (symptomatic and silent). Furthermore, a factor on 11qter possibly differentiates the two forms. In contrast, none of the regions recently published was confirmed by the present screening.
Muir-Torre phenotype has a frequency of DNA mismatch-repair-gene mutations similar to that in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families defined by the Amsterdam criteria.
Kruse R. Rutten A. Lamberti C. Hosseiny-Malayeri HR. Wang Y. Ruelfs C. Jungck M. Mathiak M. Ruzicka T. Hartschuh W. Bisceglia M. Friedl W. Propping P.
Institute of Human Genetics, Friedrich-Wilhelms University, Bonn, Germany. Kruse@humgen.uni-bonn.de
Muir-Torre syndrome (MTS) is an autosomal dominant disease defined by the coincidence of at least one sebaceous skin tumor and one internal malignancy. About half of MTS patients are affected by colorectal cancer. In a subgroup of MTS patients the disease has an underlying DNA mismatch-repair (MMR) defect and thus is allelic to hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent germ-line mutations in DNA MMR genes are the underlying cause of the MTS phenotype. We ascertained 16 MTS patients with sebaceous skin tumors and colorectal cancer, and we examined their skin and visceral tumors for microsatellite instability. All the patients exhibited high genomic instability in at least one tumor. The search for germ-line mutations in the hMSH2 and hMLH1 genes in 13 of the MTS patients revealed truncating mutations in 9 (69%): eight mutations in the hMSH2 gene and one in the hMLH1 gene. This is the first systematic search for germ-line mutations in patients ascertained on the basis of sebaceous skin tumors. Our results indicate that (1) MTS patients exhibit significantly more mutations in the hMSH2 gene than in the hMLH1 gene; and (2) the subpopulation of MTS patients who are also affected by colorectal cancer, irrespective of family history and age at onset of tumors, may have a likelihood for an underlying DNA MMR defect similar to that for patients with a family history fulfilling the strict clinical criteria for HNPCC.
Linkage and association between inflammatory bowel disease and a locus on chromosome 12.
Duerr RH. Barmada MM. Zhang L. Davis S. Preston RA. Chensny LJ. Brown JL. Ehrlich GD. Weeks DE. Aston CE.
Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA. email@example.com
Genetic epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are important in the pathogenesis of the idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn disease (CD), and ulcerative colitis (UC). A genome screen in the United Kingdom found linkage of IBD to a 41-cM region of chromosome 12, surrounding D12S83. We aimed to replicate this linkage and to narrow the region of interest. Nonparametric linkage analyses at microsatellites surrounding D12S83 were performed in 122 North American Caucasian families containing 208 genotyped IBD-affected relative pairs. Transmission/disequilibrium tests (TDTs) were also performed. We confirmed that IBD is linked to chromosome 12 (peak GENEHUNTER-PLUS LOD* score 2.76 [P = .00016] between D12S1724 and D12S90). The evidence for linkage is contributed by both the group of CD-affected relative pairs (peak GENEHUNTER-PLUS LOD* score 1.79 [P = .0021] between D12S1724 and D12S90) and the group of UC-affected relative pairs (peak GENEHUNTER-PLUS LOD* score 1.82 [P = .0019] at D12S335). The TDT is positive at the D12S83 locus (global chi2 = 16.41, 6 df, P = .012). In conclusion, we have independently confirmed linkage of IBD to the chromosome 12 region that we investigated. A positive TDT at D12S83 suggests that we have greatly narrowed the chromosome 12 region that contains an IBD locus.
Systematic analysis of molecular defects in the ferrochelatase gene from patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria.
Rufenacht UB. Gouya L. Schneider-Yin X. Puy H. Schafer BW. Aquaron R. Nordmann Y. Minder EI. Deybach JC.
Zentrallabor, Stadtspital Triemli, Zurich, Switzerland.
Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP; MIM 177000) is an inherited disorder caused by partial deficiency of ferrochelatase (FECH), the last enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway. In EPP patients, the FECH deficiency causes accumulation of free protoporphyrin in the erythron, associated with a painful skin photosensitivity. In rare cases, the massive accumulation of protoporphyrin in hepatocytes may lead to a rapidly progressive liver failure. The mode of inheritance in EPP is complex and can be either autosomal dominant with low clinical penetrance, as it is in most cases, or autosomal recessive. To acquire an in-depth knowledge of the genetic basis of EPP, we conducted a systematic mutation analysis of the FECH gene, following a procedure that combines the exon-by-exon denaturing-gradient-gel-electrophoresis screening of the FECH genomic DNA and direct sequencing. Twenty different mutations, 15 of which are newly described here, have been characterized in 26 of 29 EPP patients of Swiss and French origin. All the EPP patients, including those with liver complications, were heterozygous for the mutations identified in the FECH gene. The deleterious effect of all missense mutations has been assessed by bacterial expression of the respective FECH cDNAs generated by site-directed mutagenesis. Mutations leading to a null allele were a common feature among three EPP pedigrees with liver complications. Our systematic molecular study has resulted in a significant enlargement of the mutation repertoire in the FECH gene and has shed new light on the hereditary behavior of EPP.
Missense mutations in disease genes: a Bayesian approach to evaluate causality.
Petersen GM. Parmigiani G. Thomas D.
Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
The problem of interpreting missense mutations of disease-causing genes is an increasingly important one. Because these point mutations result in alteration of only a single amino acid of the protein product, it is often unclear whether this change alone is sufficient to cause disease. We propose a Bayesian approach that utilizes genetic information on affected relatives in families ascertained through known missense-mutation carriers. This method is useful in evaluating known disease genes for common disease phenotypes, such as breast cancer or colorectal cancer. The posterior probability that a missense mutation is disease causing is conditioned on the relationship of the relatives to the proband, the population frequency of the mutation, and the phenocopy rate of the disease. The approach is demonstrated in two cancer data sets: BRCA1 R841W and APC I1307K. In both examples, this method helps establish that these mutations are likely to be disease causing, with Bayes factors in favor of causality of 5.09 and 66.97, respectively, and posterior probabilities of .836 and .985. We also develop a simple approximation for rare alleles and consider the case of unknown penetrance and allele frequency.
Spectrum and frequency of jagged1 (JAG1) mutations in Alagille syndrome patients and their families.
Krantz ID. Colliton RP. Genin A. Rand EB. Li L. Piccoli DA. Spinner NB.
Division of Human Genetics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
Alagille syndrome (AGS) is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by liver disease in combination with heart, skeletal, ocular, facial, renal, and pancreatic abnormalities. We have recently demonstrated that Jagged1 (JAG1) is the AGS gene. JAG1 encodes a ligand in the Notch intercellular signaling pathway. AGS is the first developmental disorder to be associated with this pathway and the first human disorder caused by a Notch ligand. We have screened 54 AGS probands and family members to determine the frequency of mutations in JAG1. Three patients (6%) had deletions of the entire gene. Of the remaining 51 patients, 35 (69%) had mutations within JAG1, identified by SSCP analysis. Of the 35 identified intragenic mutations, all were unique, with the exceptions of a 5-bp deletion in exon 16, seen in two unrelated patients, and a C insertion at base 1618 in exon 9, also seen in two unrelated patients. The 35 intragenic mutations included 9 nonsense mutations (26%); 2 missense mutations (6%); 11 small deletions (31%), 8 small insertions (23%), and 1 complex rearrangement (3%), all leading to frameshifts; and 4 splice-site mutations (11%). The mutations are spread across the coding sequence of the gene within the evolutionarily conserved motifs of the JAG1 protein. There is no phenotypic difference between patients with deletions of the entire JAG1 gene and those with intragenic mutations, which suggests that one mechanism involved in AGS is haploinsufficiency. The two missense mutations occur at the same amino acid residue. The mechanism by which these missense mutations lead to the disease is not yet understood; however, they suggest that mechanisms other than haploinsufficiency may result in the AGS phenotype.
Genotype-phenotype correlations in attenuated adenomatous polyposis coli.
Soravia C. Berk T. Madlensky L. Mitri A. Cheng H. Gallinger S. Cohen Z. Bapat B.
Department of Surgery, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Germ-line mutations of the tumor suppressor APC are implicated in attenuated adenomatous polyposis coli (AAPC), a variant of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). AAPC is recognized by the occurrence of 40 years). The aim of this study was to assess genotype-phenotype correlations in AAPC families. By protein-truncation test (PTT) assay, the entire coding region of the APC gene was screened in affected individuals from 11 AAPC kindreds, and their phenotypic differences were examined. Five novel germ-line APC mutations were identified in seven kindreds. Mutations were located in three different regions of the APC gene: (1) at the 5' end spanning exons 4 and 5, (2) within exon 9, and (3) at the 3' distal end of the gene. Variability in the number of colorectal adenomas was most apparent in individuals with mutations in region 1, and upper-gastrointestinal manifestations were more severe in them. In individuals with mutations in either region 2 or region 3, the average number of adenomas tended to be lower than those in individuals with mutations in region 1, although age at diagnosis was similar. In all AAPC kindreds, a predominance of right-sided colorectal adenomas and rectal polyp sparing was observed. No desmoid tumors were found in these kindreds. Our data suggest that, in AAPC families, the location of the APC mutation may partially predict specific phenotypic expression. This should help in the design of tailored clinical-management protocols in this subset of FAP patients.