gamma-Glutamyl transpeptidase: catalytic mechanism and gene expression.
Taniguchi N. Ikeda Y.
Department of Biochemistry, Osaka University Medical School, Japan.
The gamma-glutamyl transpeptidases are key enzymes in the so-called gamma-glutamyl cycle involving glutathione synthesis, the recovery of its constituents, and in the transport of amino acids. This membrane-bound ectoenzyme thus serves to regulate glutathione synthesis. This chapter deals with the active site chemistry of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, including the role of side-chain groups on the light subunit as well as several serine residues in the catalytic process. Also considered are genomic studies indicating (a) the presence of a single gene in mouse and rat; (b) the occurrence of multiple genes in humans; (c) the involvement of multiple promoters for gene expression; and (d) how these multiple promoters may play a role in the tissue-specific expression of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidases.