Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression in the liver of patients with extrahepatic cholestasis.
Department of Pathology, Medical Faculty, Trakia University, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria.
ICAM-1 mediates the recruitment of neutrophils through the endothelium to the site of inflammation by the ICAM-1/Mac-1 and ICAM-1/LFA-1 adhesion pathways. In extrahepatic cholestasis, recruitment of neutrophils is a main feature of the inflammatory infiltrate in areas of parenchymal damage. The aim of the present study was to describe the light and electron microscopical localization of ICAM-1 expression in the liver of cholestatic patients. The peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique was used. Increased ICAM-1 expression was detected on sinusoidal endothelial and Kupffer cells. A de novo ICAM-1 expression was described on some Ito cells and the sinusoidal hepatocyte membrane in areas of parenchymal injury. In the portal areas of livers of cholestatic patients, ICAM-1 was observed on the endothelial surface of portal veins and on hepatic arteries. Occasionally, ICAM-1 was found on the surface of bile duct epithelia. It is suggested that ICAM-1 expression is up-regulated by cytokines like TNF-alpha, IL-1 and interferons released from activated Kupffer cells. The mechanisms of ICAM-1 upregulation and neutrophil recruitment in the liver during extrahepatic cholestasis are discussed.