European study on dose-response relationship of acarbose as a first-line drug in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: efficacy and safety of low and high doses.
Fischer S. Hanefeld M. Spengler M. Boehme K. Temelkova-Kurktschiev T.
Institute and Outpatient Department of Clinical Metabolic Research, Medical Faculty C. G. Carus, Technical University Dresden, Germany.
The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational, five-arm study was to investigate the dose-response relationship of acarbose as a first-line drug in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (non-insulin dependent) over a range of minimal and maximal doses according to the European recommendations. The study included 495 patients from 7 countries who were insufficiently controlled with diet alone (glycosylated haemoglobin HbA1C 6.5%-9%). Acarbose, 25, 50, 100 or 200 mg t.i.d., or placebo t.i.d. was given for 24 weeks. Even a low dosage of 25 mg t.i.d. acarbose reduced fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels (1 h postprandial -11.6%; 2 h postprandial -11.3%). Acarbose in a dosage of 200 mg t.i.d. had the greatest effect on these parameters. In the placebo group the mean 2 h postprandial area under the curve (AUC) value for blood glucose was 22.6 mmol/l after 24 weeks' therapy. The mean 2 h postprandial AUC values in the patients given acarbose at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg t.i.d. were found to be 21.2, 19.6, 20.3 and 18.5 mmol/l, respectively. The corresponding HbA1C values for the placebo and acarbose groups were 7.83%, 7.37%, 7.08%, 6.98% and 6.79%. Interestingly, there was a plateau of blood glucose level at a dosage of 50-100 mg t.i.d. The frequency of flatulence decreased with the duration of drug therapy, but we could not find a linear relationship between doses of acarbose and the gastrointestinal side effects. Less than 3% of patients stopped tablet intake due to adverse events.
Serum 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol levels in liver cirrhosis.
Yamagishi S. Ohta M.
Department of Biochemistry, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, Japan.
We studied the serum 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol (AG) levels, a marker of glycemic control, in liver cirrhotic patients who had no evidence of glycosuria in 24-h urine samples in order to clarify the effects of impaired liver function on serum AG metabolism. We showed first that serum AG concentrations were significantly lower in cirrhotic patients than in age- and sex-matched healthy controls (17.6+/-1.6 vs 26.3+/-1.7 microg/ml, P