Comparison of subhypnotic doses of thiopentone vs propofol on the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting following middle ear surgery.
Honkavaara P. Saarnivaara L.
Department of Anaesthesia, Otolaryngological Clinic, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland.
BACKGROUND: Middle ear surgery is associated with a high incidence of emetic sequelae and propofol has been reported to have antiemetic activity in subhypnotic doses. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized study, the patients received either thiopentone 1.0 mg.kg-1 (n = 26) or 0.5 mg.kg-1 propofol (n = 26) at the end of middle ear surgery under isoflurane-N2O-fentanyl-vecuronium anaesthesia. Trained nurses, unaware of the group assignment, assessed postoperative nausea, retching and vomiting up to 24 h after the end of anaesthesia. Droperidol 10 micrograms.kg-1 was used as a "rescue" antiemetic. RESULTS: The main result was that the patient in the propofol group did not suffer from retching and vomiting (R&V) during the first 6 h, whereas these symptoms occurred in 46% (P < 0.001) of the patients in the thiopentone group. The patients in the propofol group needed significantly less droperidol during the first 24 h (mean number of doses 0.39 +/- 0.57 (SD)) than the patients in the thiopentone group (1.35 +/- 1.47, P < 0.005). Treatment with propofol was a predictor for lowered incidence of R&V, as well as male gender and negative history of motion sickness. CONCLUSION: Propofol at a subhypnotic dose of 0.5 mg.kg-1 provides prophylaxis against retching and vomiting for the first 6 h postoperatively after middle ear surgery. The incidence of nausea was not reduced by propofol.
Intravenous fluid and postoperative nausea and vomiting after day-case termination of pregnancy.
Elhakim M. el-Sebiae S. Kaschef N. Essawi GH.
Department of Anaesthesia, Faculty of Medicine, Ain-Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.
BACKGROUND: Deprivation of oral fluid before minor surgery has been alleged to cause postoperative nausea. We examined the effect of intraoperative fluid load on postoperative nausea and vomiting over 3 d after day-case termination of pregnancy. METHODS: In a randomized study, 100 patients were allocated into one of two groups; receiving 1000 ml of compound sodium lactate solution during surgery or no intraoperative fluid. Propofol and alfentanil was used to induce and maintain anaesthesia with nitrous oxide (67%) and oxygen (33%). Visual analogue scores for nausea and pain, the time and frequency of emetic episodes, analgesic and antiemetic consumption were recorded for 3 d postoperatively. RESULTS: The scores of nausea were significantly lower in the fluid group (P < 0.05) compared with the control group at 1, 2, 4 h and during 24-48 h following surgery. The incidence of emesis was lower (P < 0.01) after discharge, and the time to first oral fluid was shorter (P < 0.05) in the fluid group. There was no difference in pain score or analgesic consumption between the groups. Five patients (10%) in the control group requested antiemetic medication compared with none in the fluid group. CONCLUSION: Intraoperative fluid administration may offer some benefit in decreasing the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting following day-case surgery.
Prevention of nausea and vomiting in female patients undergoing breast surgery: a comparison with granisetron, droperidol, metoclopramide and placebo.
Fujii Y. Tanaka H. Toyooka H.
Department of Anaesthesiology, Toride Kyodo General Hospital, Ibaraki, Japan.
BACKGROUND: Breast surgery is associated with a relatively high incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of granisetron, droperidol and metoclopramide for preventing PONV after breast surgery. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 120 female patients received granisetron 40 micrograms.kg-1, droperidol 1.25 mg, metoclopramide 10 mg or placebo (saline) (n = 30 for each) intravenously immediately before the induction of anaesthesia. A standard general anaesthetic technique was employed throughout. Postoperatively, during the first 24 h after anaesthesia, the incidence of PONV and adverse events was recorded. RESULTS: The incidence of PONV was 17% with granisetron, 37% with droperidol, 43% with metoclopramide and 50% with placebo (P < 0.05; overall Fisher's exact probability test). The incidence of adverse events was not different among the groups. CONCLUSION: Granisetron is highly effective for reducing the incidence of PONV in female patients undergoing breast surgery. Droperidol and metoclopramide are ineffective in this population.
Desflurane versus propofol maintenance for outpatient laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Raeder JC. Mjaland O. Aasbo V. Grogaard B. Buanes T.
Department of Anaesthesia, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
BACKGROUND: The aims of the study were to evaluate costs and clinical characteristics of desflurane-based anaesthetic maintenance versus propofol for outpatient cholecystectomy. METHODS: All 60 patients received ketamine 0.2 mg kg(-1), fentanyl 2 microg kg(-1) and propofol 2 mg kg(-1) for induction. Ketorolac 0.4 mg kg(-1) and ondansetron 0.05 mg kg(-1) +droperidol 20 microg kg(-1) was given as prophylaxis for postoperative pain and emesis, respectively. The patients were randomly assigned into Group P with propofol maintenance and opioid supplements, or Group D with desflurane in a low-flow circuit system. RESULTS: All the patients were successfully discharged within 8 h without any serious complications. Emergence from anaesthesia was more rapid after desflurane; they opened their eyes and stated date of birth at mean 6.4 and 8.4 min respectively, compared with 9.6 and 12 min in the propofol group (P
Oculocardiac reflex and postoperative vomiting in paediatric strabismus surgery. A randomised controlled trial comparing four anaesthetic techniques.
Tramer MR. Sansonetti A. Fuchs-Buder T. Rifat K.
Department of Anaesthesiology, Pharmacology and Surgical Intensive Care, Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland.
BACKGROUND: Oculocardiac reflex (OCR) and postoperative vomiting are major complications of paediatric strabismus surgery. METHODS: Children (3-16 yr) undergoing elective strabismus surgery as inpatients were randomly allocated to four anaesthetic techniques: (A) thiopentone induction and isoflurane maintenance; (B) as (A) plus ondansetron 5 mg x m(-2) i.v.; (C) propofol induction and maintenance; (D) as (C) plus lignocaine 2 mg x kg(-1) i.v. All children received prophylactic atropine 0.02 mg x kg(-1) and alfentanil. Nitrous oxide was omitted. RESULTS: Data on 157 children were analysed. The cumulative incidence of vomiting within 6 and 24 h after surgery with thiopentone-isoflurane was 26% and 46%, respectively. Adding ondansetron decreased the incidence to 8% and 33%, respectively. This improvement was significant within 6 h only; the number-needed-to-treat was 5.5 (95% CI 2.9-46). Propofol was not different from thiopentone-isoflurane. The addition of lignocaine to propofol was of no benefit. The risk of an OCR was significantly increased with propofol (incidence 40%) compared with isoflurane (14%); the number-needed-to-harm was 3.9 (95% CI 2.6-8). CONCLUSIONS: Thiopental-isoflurane-air/O2-alfentanil resulted in a moderate risk of vomiting. Adding ondansetron significantly decreased this risk, but 6 children have to be treated for one to benefit in the early postoperative period. Propofol and propofol-lignocaine showed no benefit on vomiting but significantly increased the risk of an OCR despite high-dose prophylactic atropine.
Nausea and vomiting after major arthroplasty with spinal anaesthesia including morphine: a randomised trial of subhypnotic propofol infusion as prophylaxis.
Department of Anaesthesia, General Hospital, Oskarshamn, Sweden.
BACKGROUND: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) following major arthroplasty with spinal anaesthesia and intrathecal morphine is reported in 45-74% of patients. This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken to determine whether a subhypnotic infusion of propofol has a prophylactic antiemetic effect in this patient population. METHODS: 82 patients undergoing hip or knee replacement under subarachnoid bupivacaine anaesthesia plus morphine 0.25 mg were randomised at the end of surgery to receive either propofol 30 mg x h(-1) or fat emulsion (Intralipid) 3 ml x h(-1) for 20 h postoperatively. Blinded observers recorded episodes of nausea, vomiting and pruritus. RESULTS: PONV in the intervention group was 40% vs 59% in the controls (P=0.1, not significant). Pruritus occurred in 34%, with a similar rate in both groups. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that routine use of postoperative, subhypnotic propofol infusion as PONV prophylaxis is not justified in this patient population.
Comparing analgesic efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs given by different routes in acute and chronic pain: a qualitative systematic review.
Tramer MR. Williams JE. Carroll D. Wiffen PJ. Moore RA. McQuay HJ.
Pain Research, Nuffield Department of Anaesthetics, The Churchill Oxford Radcliffe Hospital, England.
AIM: To test the evidence for a difference in analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) given by different routes. METHODS: Systematic review of published randomised controlled trials. Relevant trials were comparisons of the same drug given by different routes. Presence of internal sensitivity was sought as a validity criterion. Analgesic and adverse effect outcomes were summarised, and synthesised qualitatively. RESULTS: In 26 trials (2225 analysed patients), 8 different NSAIDs were tested in 58 comparisons. Fifteen trials (58%) compared the same drug by different routes. Drugs were given by intravenous, intramuscular, intrawound, rectal and oral routes in postoperative pain (14 trials), renal colic (4), acute musculoskeletal pain (1), dysmenorrhoea (1), and rheumatoid arthritis (6). Five of the 15 direct comparisons were invalid because they reported no difference between routes but without evidence of internal sensitivity. In all 3 direct comparisons in renal colic, intravenous NSAID had a faster onset of action than intramuscular or rectal. In 1 direct comparison in dysmenorrhoea, oral NSAID was better than rectal. In the 5 direct comparisons in postoperative pain, results were inconsistent. In 1 direct comparison in rheumatoid arthritis, intramuscular NSAID was better than oral. Injected and rectal administration had some specific adverse effects. CONCLUSION: In renal colic there is evidence that NSAIDs act quickest when given intravenously. This may be clinically relevant. In all other pain conditions there is a lack of evidence of any difference between routes. In pain conditions other than renal colic, there is, therefore, a strong argument to give oral NSAIDs when patients can swallow.
Granisetron prevents nausea and vomiting during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section.
Fujii Y. Tanaka H. Toyooka H.
Department of Anaesthesiology, Toride Kyodo General Hospital, Ibaraki, Japan.
BACKGROUND: Nausea and vomiting during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section are common and unpleasant complications. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of granisetron, a selective 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonist, for prophylactic treatment of nausea and vomiting in parturients undergoing nonemergent caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 100 patients, 21-38 years, received either placebo (saline) or granisetron at 3 different doses (20 micrograms.kg-1, 40 micrograms.kg-1 or 80 micrograms.kg-1) (n = 25 for each) intravenously immediately after clamping of the foetal umbilical cord. Nausea, vomiting and safety assessments were performed during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. RESULTS: The treatment groups were similar with regard to maternal characteristics and operative management. The incidence of nausea and vomiting was 64%, 52%, 14% and 12% after administration of placebo and granisetron in a dose of 20 micrograms.kg-1, 40 micrograms.kg-1 and 80 micrograms.kg-1, respectively (P < 0.05; overall Fisher's exact probability test). No clinically important adverse effects were observed in any group. CONCLUSION: Prophylactic use of granisetron in a minimum dose of 40 micrograms.kg-1 is effective for preventing nausea and vomiting during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section.
A risk score to predict the probability of postoperative vomiting in adults.
Apfel CC. Greim CA. Haubitz I. Goepfert C. Usadel J. Sefrin P. Roewer N.
Department of Anaesthesiology, University of Wuerzburg, Germany.
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify factors most relevant for postoperative vomiting (PV) and to develop a risk score to predict the probability of PV. METHODS: Adult inpatients scheduled for elective ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgery under general anaesthesia were offered to participate in a prospective study for PV over 24 h. No prophylactic antiemetics were used. The data of 1137 patients were randomized and split into an evaluation set (n=553) and a validation set (n=584). The evaluation set was subjected to logistic regression analysis to quantify the relative impact of anaesthetic, surgical and individual factors and to develop a risk score. The score was then tested by applying it to the validation set. The area under a receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated and the predicted and actual incidences of patients were correlated. RESULTS: In the evaluation set, patient-related factors (female gender, young age, non-smoking, history of PV or motion sickness) and a high duration of anaesthesia were independent risk factors for PV. The probability of PV could be estimated from the equation: PV=1/(1+exp(-z)) where z=1.28 (gender)-0.029 (age)-0.74 x (smoking)+0.63 x (history of PV or motion sickness)+0.26 x (duration)-0.92. In the validation set this score achieved an area under the ROC-curve of 0.78 and the actual incidence correlated strongly with the predicted risks (R2=0.93, P
The discriminating power of a risk score for postoperative vomiting in adults undergoing various types of surgery.
Apfel CC. Greim CA. Haubitz I. Grundt D. Goepfert C. Sefrin P. Roewer N.
Department of Anaesthesiology, University of Wuerzburg, Germany.
BACKGROUND: Recently, we have demonstrated that the probability of postoperative vomiting (PV) following ENT surgery with inhalational anaesthetics can be predicted using a risk score. This score is based on gender, age, smoking status, history of motion sickness or postoperative nausea and vomiting and the duration of anaesthesia. Therefore, it is of interest whether this score is also accurate in predicting PV in patients undergoing different types of surgery. METHODS: Inpatients scheduled for bone, vascular, general or eye surgery were included in a prospective survey for PV over 24 h. Data of 1091 patients were analyzed, of which 542 were used for the validation of the previously constructed risk score (Score I). The data of the remaining 549 patients were used to evaluate the risk factors that contribute to PV in this setting and to develop a new score (Score II). The discriminating power of both scores to predict PV was tested in the validation set (n=542) and compared by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. RESULTS: The area under the ROC curve of Score I was 0.77 (SD 0.024). Risk factors for PV in the evaluation set were female gender, young age, history of motion sickness or postoperative nausea and vomiting and the type of surgery. The area under the curve of Score II was 0.75 (SD 0.026) and was not significantly different from Score I (P=0.57). CONCLUSION: Score I was accurate in predicting PV in patients after most types of surgery with volatile anaesthetics, which suggests that this score might be useful for other centres as well.
Comparison of analgesic efficacy of oxycodone and morphine in postoperative intravenous patient-controlled analgesia.
Silvasti M. Rosenberg P. Seppala T. Svartling N. Pitkanen M.
Department of Anaesthesia, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland.
BACKGROUND: Morphine has been the standard opioid in patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Oxycodone, the analgesic potency of which in i.v. administration has been suggested to be slightly greater than that of morphine, has not yet been studied for its efficacy in PCA. METHODS: Fifty patients, undergoing a plastic reconstruction of the breast or a major operation of the vertebrae, such as lumbar spinal fusion, used PCA for postoperative pain. Patients were randomized to receive either morphine 45 microg/kg or oxycodone 30 microg/kg as i.v. bolus doses. Patients were assessed for pain with a visual analogue scale (VAS) and side effects at 3, 9 and 24 h. Venous blood samples for the measurement of plasma concentration of oxycodone and that of morphine and its metabolites were taken. RESULTS: In this study patients needed, on average, the same amount of oxycodone and morphine in the recovery room and on the ward. There was no difference in the quality of analgesia (VAS) or incidence of side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, pruritus and urinary retention. The plasma concentrations of morphine-6-glucuronide showed that this metabolite might contribute to the analgesia resulting from morphine administration. CONCLUSIONS: The same dose of intravenous oxycodone and morphine administered by PCA pump was needed for immediate postoperative analgesia. The two drugs appear to be equipotent.